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Windows
Default Software:
Adobe Reader - .pdf file viewer
Chrome - web browser - Chrome web store
CutePDF - print to a PDF file
Dropbox - Store/Share files Online
Firefox - web browser
LibreOffice - Free Office Suite - See also: The Document Foundation
VLC - media player (video)
Winamp - media player (audio)

Security:
Anti-Virus = Microsoft Windows Defender (Included free with Windows 10)
Anti-Malware = Malwarebytes
Login Account = Standard Account in Windows (NOT Administrator Account in Windows for daily tasks)
Ad-Blocker = uBlock Origin - Google Chrome plugin - Firefox plugin
Disable HTML5 Autoplay = Google Chrome plugin (stops auto play of HTML5 video on web sites)
Windows Updates = Keep Windows updated
Browser Updates = Keep Web Browser updated
Router = Change default administrator password on router to something difficult to guess
Optional Software:
7-Zip - Unzip/unrar software
Barrier - allows sharing of one keyboard/mouse between computers
Box - Share files across the Internet
Brave - ad-blocking, privacy, and security focused web browser
cwrsync - Rsync directory synchronization
Cygwin - Run Linux/Unix tools on Windows
dsynchronize - synchronize two or more folders
DVDShrink - DVD backup
Filezilla - sftp/ftp client
Foobar2000 - audio player
FreeFileSync - Open Source software - folder comparison and synchronization software (includes RealTimeSync - youtube demo)
gedit - Text editor
Gimp - Paint program
GoodSync - File Synchronization and Backup Software
Handbrake - Video file converter
IceChat - IRC chat client
ImgBurn - CD/DVD/Blu-Ray burner software
inSSIDer - find open WiFi channels
iTunes
Jalbum - publish pictures to www
Java - (manual download) - JDK (Java SE)
Keepa - Amazon price history browser plug-in
KeePass - encrypted password manager
MakeMKV - DVD to .MKV file - Temporary Beta Key
Marxio FCV - MD5 File Checksum Verifier - cnet
MD5 & SHA Checksum Utility
OBS Studio - video recording and live streaming software
PDFill FREE PDF Tools - cnet - encrypt/password protect pdf files
Putty - SSH client
Quicktime - media player
robocopy - mirror folders (comes with Windows)
Rufus ISO to USB
Shortcut - Video Editing Software
Secret Space Encryptor for Android - encrypt files
Synergy - share one mouse and keyboard between multiple computers
SyncToy - synchronizes files and folders
Taxact - tax preparation software
Tor Browser - privacy based web browser
TreeSize Free - show disk usage by directory
uTorrent - Torrent client
VirtualBox - Virtual system software
VMware Player - Virtual system software
VMware vCenter Converter - Virtual system software
VSDC - Free video editing software
Win32DiskImager - write .img files to USB or SD card
WPS Office - Free Office Suite alternative
Xming X Server for Windows - X Window Client/Server
Zoom Client for Meetings - video conferencing software

Windows Subsystem for Linux - Install the Linux Subsystem on Windows 10
Open PowerShell as Administrator and run:
Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux
Restart your computer when prompted.
More info:
Windows_Subersystem_For_Linux.txt
Windows Subsystem for Linux Distribution Switcher
CentOS on Windows Subsytem for Linux (WSL)
How to run Fedora with Windows subsystem for Linux (WSL)

Optional Browser Plug-Ins:
Save to Google - Saves a web page to Google - Google Save
To evaluate yet:
Ghostery - privacy plug in
WOT (Web Of Trust) - web site trust plug in
Windows 10 Notes
Option 1:
Download Windows 10 from Microsoft - How to clean install Windows 10
Option 2:
Windows10startfresh

Windows Commands:
Send file directory listing and subdirectories to a text file:
dir /s/b > file.txt
msinfo32
systeminfo
taskmgr
msconfig
netplwiz - Turn off boot login prompt: uncheck "Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer. - OK - enter password 2 times
where (command) - find/locate/which a command from command line
Check for missing or currupt Windows files: Right-click on "Command Prompt" and select "Run As Administrator", then type: sfc /scannow
Check for disk problems, type: chkdsk /f

Advanced commands:
--------------------------------------
System Internals Suite - process explorer, etc...

BCDEdit.exe - edit the boot configuration

Old:
--------------------------------------
Windows 10 upgrade install stuck at "checking for updates"
open Command Prompt as Administrator
net stop wuauserv
(wait a minute) (I noticed that Windows 10 upgrade continued shortly after stopping wuauserv service)
net start wuauserv
Security Software
Anti-virus options:
+ Avast! - Antivirus (disable WebRep)
How to remove avast GrimeFighter optional add-on:
Click Start - Control Panel - Programs and Features
Right Click on "avast! Free Antivirus" and select "Uninstall/Change"
Click on "Change" and then click Next
In the middle under Components, Uncheck the GrimeFighter check mark and click Next.
This should remove the optional GrimeFighter Avast add-on
+Avira AntiVir Personal Edition Classic
BitDefender Anti-Virus - Download
+ G DATA AntiVirus
+ NOD32 by ESET
Kaspersky
+ Microsoft Security Essentials
PC Tools Antivirus

Online Anti-Virus Scaners:
BitDefender
Panda Software online antivirus scan
Symantec online antivirus scan

Reviews: av-comparatives - Lifehacker - MaximumPC - net-security.org

Not recommended:
AVG AntiVirus
ClamWin Antivirus
McAfee AntiVirus
Norton Antivirus (from Symantec)
Anti-spyware options:
+ Ad-Aware
CWShredder
+ Hijack This
* Malwarebytes - CNET
+ Spybot Search and Destroy
SpywareBlaster - spyware prevention software
SpywareDoctor
SuperAntiSpyware
Spy Sweeper

System Cleaner:
* CCleaner
PC Decrapifier
Revo Uninstaller Free (or Pro) - Download

Reviews: spychecker

Not recommended:
Laptop remote agent (if stolen) options:
Prey

Personal Firewalls options:
+ Comodo Firewall
Filseclab Personal Firewall Professional Edition
Ghostwall Firewall
Outpost Firewall
SoftPerfect Personal Firewall
* ZoneAlarm - basic firewall

Intrusion Detection:
WinPatrol

IP blocking:
PeerBlock
PC Information, Benchmarking, Stress Testing, and Disk software
PC Information:
Intel Processor Diagnostic Tool (64-bit)
* HWMonitor
* CPUZ - See CPU information
* GPUZ - See GPU information

+AMD GPU Clock Tool - monitor temps
Argus Monitor
CoreTemp - show CPU core temps. - info
DPC Latency Checker
* HWiNFO32
Memset - See memory information
* Memtest86+ - Memory test
Memtest86 - Memory test
+ Real Temp - show CPU temps. - info - info2
+ RivaTuner - monitor temps
+ Smartmontools - monitor hard drives or SSD
+ SpeedFan - show CPU temps.
ThrottleWatch 2.01 - See active CPU core usage graphs
+ Tmonitor - show active clock of each CPU core

Monitor Testing:
Dead Pixel Buddy
DisplayMate
Eizo MonitorTest
PC Benchmarking:
Datamarck
Cinebench
Everest - trial
Fritz 9 chess multi-core benchmark
* Futurmark - 3DMark06 and 3DMark Vantage
* MaxxMEM
MaxxPI
Unigine

System Stress Testing:
* Intel Extreme Tuning Utility (XTU) - Troubleshooting Overheating - Temp FAQ
+ OCCT - OverClock Checking Tool
+ POVRAY
* FurMark - GPU stress test
Orthos
NetCPS - Network Stress Test
Prime95 - CPU stress test
Super PI Mod 1.5 - wiki
+ System Stability Tester - multi-threaded CPU stress test (Linux)
Video Memory Stress Test 1.7.116
* wPrime - CPU stress test
y-cruncher - multi-threaded pi program

Overclocking tools:
CPU-Tweaker - adjust memory timings
EVGA E-LEET - Motherboard tuning
SetFSB - overclock CPU
Disk Benchmarking:
+ AS SSD - SSD benchmark
+ ATTO
CDM Crystal Disk Mark
HD Tune

SD Cards:
SD Card Formatter

Disk imaging/backup software
Acronis
Clonezilla
Drive Copy
+ DriveImage XML - Bart PE Builder Tutorial - CNet download
* Macrium Reflect Free - CNet download
Norton Ghost
Paragon Backup & Recovery Free Edition - CNet download

Disk partitioning software
EaseUS Partition Master 9.1 Home Edition
Magic Partition
Parted Magic

Disk encryption software
TrueCrypt
Veracrypt

Disk wiping software (erases your hard drive)
dban - Darik's Boot and Nuke
Eraser - file eraser
Other
CD/DVD burner software:
InfraRecorder
+ ImgBurn
CDBurnerXP Pro
Express Burn
Nero

Blu-Ray DVD software:
AnyDVD HD by SlySoft
+ CinePlayer BD by Roxio
* PowerDVD by CyberLink
+ TotalMedia Theater 3 by ArcSoft
* WinDVD 2010 by Corel

Other:
Canon Powershot Digital camera drivers and software
Real VNC Server
WarFTP Server Daemon
WinSCP - scp/sftp file transfer application
WinZip - zip compression application
WinRAR - zip/rar compression application
Chrome Plug-in/Add-ons:
HTTPS Everywhere - A Firefox, Chrome, and Opera extension that encrypts your communications with many major websites, making your browsing more secure - caused some issues with some web sites
Privacy Badger - blocks spying ads and invisible trackers - caused some issues with some web sites

Firefox Add-ons:
Adblock Plus - limits ads
Flashblock - limits flash
NoScript - limits javascript
Sync - share bookmarks across computers
ublock origin - ad blocker
UnMHT - show .mht files
To try yet:
DownThemAll!
IE Tab
Session Manager
Tab Mix Plus

Old
OLD:
AdBlock - Adblocker - For Firefox - Android - Block ads
Flash Player - Show Active Version
uBlock - Adblocker Add-On for Firefox web browser
Kompozer - WYSIWYG web editor
LinuxLiveUSB
MediaMonkey - audio player and organizer
Notepad++ - text editor
OpenOffice
Opentape - stream music
Opera - web browser
Paint.net - Paint program
Pidgin - Instant Messenger Chat Client
Remobo - remote VPN computer control software
Thunderbird - email client
uberOptions - enables all options on Logitech mice
XChat-WDK - IRC chat client

mount ext2/ext3 Linux file systems in windows:
Linux-Reader
Ext2fsd
virtual volumes
explore2fs
Ext2IFS which has a 128 byte maximum inode size file system mounting limitation))

XFS file system recovery
Other applications, see also:
Ninite Easy PC Setup
Free Anti Virus Software listing
www.tucows.com
www.nonags.com
WinPlanet Windows Software Reviews and Downloads
FDISK.COM DOS Internet Pages
www.cdrom.com
www.windows95.com
www.shareware.com
Xiaomu's Winsock Apps List
Windows 95 Network Utility Collection
www.filemine.com
DaveCentral (www.davecentral.com/index.html)
Windows 8.1 Notes
Power User Menu = Windows_Key + x

Turn off login prompt:
Start - netplwiz - uncheck "Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer. - OK - enter password 2 times

Turn off login prompt after waking from sleep mode:
Control Panel - Power Options - Require a password on wakeup -
Change settings that are currently unavailable - Don't require a password - Save changes

Start at Windows Desktop after boot:
Right click on Task Bar - Properties - Navigation tab - Check "When I sign in or close all apps on screen, go to the desktop instead of Start" - OK

Start shows Apps view instead of Start:
Right click on Task Bar - Properties - Navigation tab - Check "Show the Apps view automatically when I go to Start" - OK
WINDOWS 7 NOTES
Turn off login prompt:
Start - netplwiz - uncheck "Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer. - OK - enter password 2 times

Turn off login prompt after waking from sleep mode:
Control Panel - Power Options - Require a password on wakeup -
Change settings that are currently unavailable - Don't require a password - Save changes

Verify SSD TRIM is enabled:
Open an Administrator Command Prompt and run:
fsutil behavior query DisableDeleteNotify
0=TRIM enabled
1=TRIM not enabled

If it is set to 1, you can force TRIM enabled by running:
fsutil behavior set DisableDeleteNotify 0

Enable Windows Games:
Start - Control Panel - Programs and Features - Turn Windows features on or off - Games - OK

Clean Install Windows 7 with Upgrade Media
How to Create a System Image in Windows 7
How to: Install Windows 7 from a USB Key!
Windows 7 USB/DVD Download Tool
Windows 7: A desktop user's take
Windows 7: Tested in depth

Optional for Windows 7:
Turn off UAC

If using SSD drive, verify these are disabled for SSD drive:
Disable disk indexing
Disable superfetch
Disable windows search
WINDOWS XP NOTES:
Disable startup user login screen:
Start - Run - "control userpasswords2" - uncheck "Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer."

Set explorer to "%SystemRoot%\explorer.exe /e,/select,c:\docs"

Windows Startup configuration:
start - run - msconfig

Turn off default audio sounds

Cisco VPN: Windows Firewall - Exceptions tab Add Port - Cisco VPN - Port 62515 - UDP

Before install, remove any USB hardware
(USB memory cards, USB computer connections to monitor, etc...) (USB keyboard and mouse are OK)

Why 32-bit Windows sees only 3GB not 4GB RAM on a system that has 4GB of RAM installed